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Mar 2, 2010 7:41 PMPublication: The Southampton Press

In case of emergency: East End SWAT teams

Mar 2, 2010 7:41 PM

Preparing for Mayhem

Training is an essential component to SWAT and emergency services teams on the East End, and most of the agencies have recently banded together to do so.

In fact, Inspector Cameron explained that the county has recently established the Long Island Tactical Consortium, and invited every tactical team on Long Island to join. He said that the consortium will make training easier for Long Island tactical groups. Instead of having to send officers away for training, the consortium can host training sessions. This will save money on travel and food expenses municipalities must pay for the officers, he explained.

Before attending any countywide training session, to even be on a SWAT team officers must attend a two-week school run by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Capt. Tenaglia said. The school is paid for by the federal government, he explained. Local tax money goes toward travel and meal expenses, he noted.

After completing the FBI school, the officers have to continue training and maintain peak physical condition. Capt. Tenaglia said that members of the Southampton Town team must pass a physical exam each year as well as do monthly training.

The members of the East Hampton Emergency Services Unit also must do monthly training, and sometimes the East End teams join together to practice. Capt. Tenaglia noted that the teams recently practiced responding to emergency situations together. “We’re training a little bit more with each other to work better with each other,” he said.

In October, a drill at a farm in Bridgehampton included special response teams from the Southampton Village, Southampton Town, East Hampton Village, East Hampton Town and Sag Harbor police departments, as well as the Suffolk County Police Department’s Medevac helicopter crew. About 40 police officers were present for the drill, which simulated a shooting involving an officer responding to a call and focused on developing the special response teams’ ability to communicate and work together in a crisis.

The extra responsibility of training and maintaining peak physical fitness attracts a certain type of officer, members of the team explained. Capt. Tenaglia explained that officers who enjoy the physical aspect of police work and high-adrenaline situations gravitate toward the team.

“If you’re staying in shape, rappelling out of a helicopter, running around with a gas mask on, it’s the way to go,” Capt. Tenaglia said.

Capt. Tracey noted that, aside from the organization of formal tactical teams, the national trend in police departments has been to have more extensive training for regular officers.

“A lot of agencies have implemented active shooter training—which came after school shootings—for the rank-and-file officer who is the first on the scene for extreme violence,” said Capt. Tracey.

Quogue Village Police has officers who have acquired skills to diffuse potentially fatal incidents since school shootings, such as the Columbine High School massacre in Colorado and the Virginia Tech University shootings.

Lt. Isola said that officers are no longer taught to set up a perimeter around a crime scene and wait out whatever violence may be happening within. Now, most officers have learned to charge in on the scene.

“As recent as 15 years ago, police officers responded and contained a situation, and then waited for specialists to come,” Lt. Isola explained. “We’re not sitting outside a building while death and mayhem is going on—a different response is being instilled in police officers across the nation, to go toward the death and destruction and try to stop it.”

The Southampton Village Police Department, in fact, has begun training a paramedic, Matt Zukosky, and an emergency room doctor, John Hunt, to enter a scene and attend to any victims who are seriously injured. Together, they comprise the tactical emergency medical services component of the team, Chief Wilson said.

“Their function is twofold: to provide emergency triage and medical for other team members, and also for victims of the event,” he noted.

Dr. Hunt and Mr. Zukosky, who is a professor at Suffolk County Community College, have not yet finished their training and are not armed.

Paying for Safety

The members of the tactical and emergency response teams on the East End wield a wide array of dangerous weapons, such as semi-automatic and automatic weapons and tear gas.

Those weapons, and the many other accoutrements that make a team effective, are paid for through a combination of grants and taxpayer money, members of the teams explained.

For example, Capt. Tenaglia said that his team’s night vision equipment, including its infrared goggles, was secured through a grant. The team’s last weapons upgrade—in which they turned in older, outdated weapons—was also done through a grant.

“We got rid of our older weapons, and replaced them with newer weapons with better optics and lighting systems, all through a grant,” Capt. Tenaglia said.

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Terrifying! The only thing that could be more frightening is if the SC Sheriffs Department had a SWAT team. I hope they aren't issued live ammo.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 2, 10 11:48 PM
No live ammo Highhatsize, just water pistols and cap guns, that way if they encounter a bad guy they can just scare him really bad.
By Bayman1 (297), Sag Harbor on Mar 3, 10 1:24 PM
Thank goodness! I am reassured. Carry on, Village SWAT.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 3, 10 4:27 PM
These swat teams are agents of the new world order. They should be made illegal and banned from the planet. Paranoia will destroy ya.
By Johnny Nova (83), Northampton on Mar 3, 10 7:49 AM
I am very afraid. Think David Glowzenski.
By SusieD (115), Southampton on Mar 3, 10 7:56 AM
What does David Glowzenski have to do with anything here???

By Frank Wheeler (1826), Northampton on Mar 3, 10 9:16 AM
are you guys kidding me... These men are trying to make our town safe and all you guys see is negative... We are lucky to have men that take thier jobs seriously and want to make sure that we are protected.
By dee (14), southampton on Mar 3, 10 8:44 AM
"Tommy" Rudyard Kipling
By Terry (380), Southampton on Mar 3, 10 10:28 AM
- - - refers to wolves, not Corgis.

By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 3, 10 6:02 PM
This comment has been removed because it is a duplicate, off-topic or contains inappropriate content.
By Terry (380), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 1:17 PM
DEE I agree with you 100%........... For everone else who is crying like little baby's. I guarantee you will NOT be saying ANYTHING negative about the (SRT/ SWAT) teams when YOU, or a loved one needs them.

They put their lives on the line EVERY DAY, I personally think they are alll heros, as well as the Firefighters.
By KAZ (26), SOUTHAMPTON on Mar 3, 10 11:04 AM
2 members liked this comment
Dee I agree with you 100% - what when you all need their help you won't be putting them down then!!! They risk their lives to save others
Please don't call them when you are attacked by some maniac!
By Arthur187 (3), Southampton on Mar 3, 10 11:11 AM
1 member liked this comment
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Excellent resource to have on hand if the need ever arises. They must keep up their training, because they only get more efficient in the tactics with repetition. Suppose an incident similar to others that have occurred takes place at one of the East End Local schools? A SWAT team would be needed immediately and this provides a team already in place.
By sayitaintsojoe (100), Westhampton on Mar 3, 10 2:01 PM
My comment was directed at the concept that the Village of Southampton PD is capable of creating a SWAT team. One can buy all the exotic, dark, intimidating equipment that one wants but unless the team is uniquely dedicated to incidents that require SWAT tactics, one is simply a danger to oneself and others. The SWAT team in NYC doesn't spend all its time doing DWI busts and then have SWAT training one weekend a year.

Simply, the Village PD is talking what it can't be walking. If there ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 3, 10 4:29 PM
1 member liked this comment
I could make a full-time job correcting all the nonsense you spread on this forum. NYPD ESU conducts patrol, writes summons and conducts DWI stops like any other police agency in this country. They also assist in evidence searches, vehicle extrication,aided cases, hazardous materials incidents, confined space rescue, scuba rescue, K9's etc.
By politcal pawn (121), Flanders on Mar 4, 10 6:43 PM
to political pawn:

Knowing how NYPD officers disdain traffic patrol, I would bet that NYPD ESU cops spend little, if any, of their time busting DWIs. By contrast, DWI busts constitute most of the incident reports of the STPD.

By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 1:29 PM
who are you "highhatsize"? do you actually know how many times a year they have training? these men are working hard to protect us. they go to the same intense training as all other SWAT teams... get your facts straight before you bash people who are just doing thier job and trying to protect our community.
By dee (14), southampton on Mar 3, 10 4:56 PM
Nonsense. There is no rational need for a small, local police force to undergo "intense training" in SWAT. The community has to balance the cost of the training against the need. The fact is that we cannot afford to train them adequately and inadequately trained SWAT cops are worse than plain vanilla cops in hostage situations.

While undergoing the training, the cops are still on full salary, overtime if they can get it, for a situation they will almost surely never encounter and for ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 3, 10 5:36 PM
2 members liked this comment
the teams are mostly trained in house by military veterans(the other uniformed people you hate) at little to no cost to the taxpayers. Instead of constantly talking out of your other end and spreading the lib propaganda, you should conduct some research.
By politcal pawn (121), Flanders on Mar 4, 10 6:38 PM
To political pawn:

Really! Another poster claimed to know that they were "intensely trained". Now you say that they are trained "in house", (on their own time?)

You demand research from others but offer no references yourself.

I hold a high opinion of American military personnel. Implying that the East End PDs are their equivalent is libelous.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 7:31 PM
1 member liked this comment
To Highhatsize:

A lot of the Police Officers throughtout the world, including the East End of Long Island, are either prior military or active reservists who still deploy overseas and conduct training each year on top of training they undergo with the police departments. In today's world, ALL POLICE (even the little villages in the Hamptons) should be prepared for anything. They also have personnel more qualified then you may think; if from a military background.
By 429shellback (5), Suffolk on May 1, 11 2:11 AM
Everyone might be putting the SWAT debate cart in front of the horse.

This debate will be more productive IMO based on the FACTUAL content of the article which will be out in The Press tomorrow.

No one, not even HHS as I understand him, is suggesting that SWAT teams are not necessary. Indeed, in the worst of human conflicts at the local level, they are much needed and appreciated, and the officers involved do put their lives on the line.

How about we all give this debate ...more
By PBR (4956), Southampton on Mar 3, 10 6:19 PM
Having all the facts before one comments?? Surely you jest PBR!
By Bayman1 (297), Sag Harbor on Mar 4, 10 7:25 AM
These guys were probably never victims of crime that required SWAT, but if they were they would not have the attitude.
By Hummer (13), East Hampton on Mar 3, 10 6:25 PM
reminds me of the Village's purchase of Dodge Charger hot rods for all those high-speed chases on village streets. (recently)
By loading... (601), WHB on Mar 3, 10 7:27 PM
The base price of the chargers is actually less than the crown vics.
By 290 (8), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 10:30 AM
The chargers were purchased to try out new vehicles because the crown vic will not be being made anymore in the future. They seem to be better than the other option of the chevy impala.
As far as the swat teams, I know a few people on the SHTPD swat team and they are well trained, and I personally am glad to have them in case they are needed. I wouldn't want to have to wait the time it would take the Suffolk Co. Police to arrive if they WERE needed.
By squato (4), southampton on Mar 5, 10 7:30 AM
I see a need: suppose you have a wild animal running around your yard reeking havoc, an opossum for example, simply call in these dudes and, presto, your troubles are over.
By William Rodney (561), southampton on Mar 4, 10 9:36 AM
1 member liked this comment
To those of you that are slamming the Village for having a SWAT team, I would like to know what alternative you would have us take? Should we wait for a store owner to be taken hostage during a botched robbery and then wait some more - probably upwards of two hours - for the county SWAT to arrive? Or should we rely on officers that DON'T have the special training to defuse the situation? I, for one, would much rather have the local unit, specifically trained, at the public's disposal if such a need ...more
By LocalMom (36), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 3:01 PM
2 members liked this comment
As a P.S. - you all can say it's never going to happen all you want to, but the fact is YOU DON'T KNOW THAT!
By LocalMom (36), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 3:02 PM
LocalMom is right (I can't believe I just said that) And HHS, you seem to have a major axe to grind with all of our boys in blue. Perhaps you should start to attempt to seperate the certain officers that you have a grudge against, and let the good ones (the majority) go about doing their jobs. Or do you just want to lower your taxes by not paying them all (at the expense of our communnity)?

You're the type of person that will b*tch and moan about police presence in your neighborhood being ...more
By AlwaysLocal (292), southampton on Mar 7, 10 7:56 AM
Cops are trained to do more than just arrest drunk drivers. They are SUPPOSED to be capable of dealing with hostage situations on their own without putting on all that photogenic Star Wars gear. What we have gotten for our money is a SWAT team that bears as much resemblance to a real SWAT team as a marzipan hot dog does to a genuine hot dog. Moreover, since we HAVE the gear and the team, individual officers who respond first to an incident are less likely to use their initiative to resolve the ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 4:00 PM
1 member liked this comment
Whose to say what happened in Los Angeles years back can't happen here. The police can be out gunned anywhere with the weapons they sell to the public these days.
By squato (4), southampton on Mar 5, 10 7:35 AM
you have no clue what you are talking/writing about, really please just stop.
By DirtyD (1), Aquebogue on Mar 5, 10 7:37 PM
Even though ‘High Hat Size’s’ pseudonym would indicate he believes that he is of above average intellect, I offer these observations on his assumptions of our local police and their “SWAT” teams.

Since the Columbine tragedy struck ten years ago, police agencies nationwide have been rethinking their approach to tactical situations, such as armed intruders, barricaded subjects, and other low frequency/high liability occurrences, where the threat of immediate death or critical injury to the ...more
By K Aventi (33), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 4:02 PM
A SWAT Team in a Village or Town Police Department is an exceptional idea. It's predicated on a speedy muster followed by a speedy response. If the most qualified and best fit are selected even better. And if ALL the SWAT Team members live in the Village or Town they provide service in. Unfortunately this is rarely the case. Suffolk County Police, who border Southampton Town in Manorville are always called for Bomb Disposal. They are also called for Homicide and Arson. SWAT Training is a great ...more
By PBA (14), Southampton on Mar 6, 10 7:12 PM
To K Aventi:

What can I say, you missed the joke inherent in the name.

As for the remainder of your post, it is an opinion that I do not share.

An inexperienced SWAT team is worse than none.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 4:41 PM
1 member liked this comment
It is reassuring to know that you continue to comment unabashedly on things that you obviously know nothing about.
By Bayman1 (297), Sag Harbor on Mar 4, 10 6:12 PM
to Bayman1:

Maazel Tov!
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 7:09 PM
while smallhatsize was inside his homemade bomb shelter cruising 27east.com I had the pleasure of seeing the town emergency services SWAT team in action in Flanders. The team, led by LT Hughes entered the home of an emotionally disturbed person that barricaded himself and was threatening harm to others and himself. They very efficiently entered the home, subdued the gentleman who was transported for psychiatric evaluation. No one was injured and everyone went home to their family's and the guy ...more
By politcal pawn (121), Flanders on Mar 4, 10 6:33 PM
To political pawn:

Had the perpetrator strapped Semtex around his body, holding hostage a few dozen people and threatening to detonate himself and everybody else?

Was he spraying the area with gunfire from automatic weapons?

In short, was he doing anything that the plain vanilla police could not have handled without the drama of ST SWAT?

How, exactly, was he "threatening"? I assume that he was unarmed or you would have mentioned the fact.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 7:07 PM
1 member liked this comment
No, it had to be handled by SWAT just how they would in the city.

PS, stop liking your own comments, it's obvious you are doing it yourself since no one else agrees with you.
By politcal pawn (121), Flanders on Mar 6, 10 11:24 PM
to political pawn:

Untrue. I am beloved by many. Moreover, one's character can be judged as well by one's antagonists as by one's supporters.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 2:18 PM
You know highhatsize, your user name explains you well. You have an awfully big head full of air. You would be the first one to complain if one of your family members was held hostage and the local police agencies had to wait for the NYPD ESU team to come out. These are fairly new teams for the village. You cant expect them to be pros right off the bat. The whole point of training is to get better. Their gear that you make fun of, will save their lives. How about you offer to be on the SWAT team ...more
By courtesy (43), Southampton on Mar 4, 10 8:53 PM
To courtesy;

Ad hominem remarks aside, your post asserts that East End SWAT teams need to train to get better. I responded to that inane notion days ago.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 4, 10 9:32 PM
highhastsize, how do you know what kind of training and experience the East End SWAT teams have? Are you an officer on one of these departments that you bash and trash on a regular basis? Are you an employee of one of the jurisdictions which you seem to hold an extremely high amount of contempt for? To say that the East End SWAT teams are inexperienced makes me wonder what you are basing this on.
By LocalMom (36), Southampton on Mar 5, 10 9:54 AM
As I have stated, there is no persuasive argument for a Town or Village SWAT team. If it is as rigorously trained as NYC SWAT, we are spending too much money since it is unlikely to be needed. (In addition, all the training in the world without experience is useless.) If it is trained one weekend a year, then it is unqualified both by inexperience AND training.

East End cops can handle most situations without calling for specialized teams. Moreover, the PBAs will cite the additional ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 5, 10 12:44 PM
1 member liked this comment
You are blessed to be able to see into the future...

Based on your logic, the E Quogue FD, which maybe sees a fire every 3 years should just shut the doors and stop training? Tens of thousands of dollars a year are spent at the suffolk county fire academy on training. Since the PD does 3 or 4 of these incidents a year they should stop training? The lib montra of sticking your head between your legs and praying an incident doesn't happen isn't realistic. This is the real world with people ...more
By politcal pawn (121), Flanders on Mar 6, 10 11:21 PM
to political pawn:

I cannot recall a single incident in the history of the East End that would have required a SWAT response. East End SWAT teams HAVE enrobed in costume for inappropriate incidents such as that you described wherein an emotionally disturbed individual in Flanders holed up in a house and "threatened" people. (With a banana, perhaps? You never clarified your account.)

Moreover, your analogy in not apt. Were each E. Quogue fireman taking in $150,000/yr. in salary ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 1:24 AM
This comment has been removed because it is a duplicate, off-topic or contains inappropriate content.
By courtesy (43), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 1:39 PM
to courtesy:

And yet, despite your assertion, you yourself cannot cite a single situation in the history of the East End that required a SWAT response.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 2:24 PM
Highhatsize - you obviously have some resentment... police officers and teachers are two of the most respected careers... what do you do?
By dee (14), southampton on Mar 5, 10 6:18 PM
Highhatsize.............your the best. Thanks for not crumbling like a cheap deck of cards. Kudos.
By Johnny Nova (83), Northampton on Mar 6, 10 6:17 PM
"Not crumbling" in the face of what? A post from another.... Please!!
By Bayman1 (297), Sag Harbor on Mar 6, 10 10:35 PM
to AlwaysLocal:

The "axe" that I have to "grind" with the STPD, in particular, is that it is unethical, unprofessional, and insubordinate (specifically, it fishes DWIs busts without probable cause and it intimidated the Southampton Town Council with an en masse mobbing by off-duty officers in uniform when a salary matter regarding its members was on the agenda); it is hugely overpaid and, with the assistance of a thorough cowed Town Council, hides the magnitude of its remuneration from ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 9:28 AM
2 members liked this comment
Are you suggesting that the sole function of police agancies should be to investigate, rather than deter? That's insane. The fact is that you DO, sir, rely on the pd to keep you safe, whether you want to admit it or not. You live, I'm sure, a relatively comfortable life (as do all of us on the east end) without having to worry too much about being robbed, or assaulted, or even hit by a drunk driver. If you take the officers off the street, and let the criminals know that the police will only ...more
By AlwaysLocal (292), southampton on Mar 11, 10 3:54 AM
Sounds to me like you got a DWI and are just seeking revenge on the Town Police. You keep referrng to DWIs is many of your posts.

If these Police agencies are getting alot of DWIs, isnt that making the roads safer? Why would you complain about that? You are a knuckle head.
By courtesy (43), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 1:41 PM
to courtesy:

Look up the definition of "ad hominem". Your use of it erases what little gravitas your posts possess.

For the third, or is it the fourth time, I have never been busted for DWI or even pulled over on suspicion of DWI. However, a number of acquaintances have commented on their own experiences with the STPD wherein they were fished from traffic because of their age, or their race, or their road location near a nightclub, or a combination of all three. They have been ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 7, 10 1:52 PM
1 member liked this comment
If the town police put the video cameras in every car, that would cost alot of money and we all know how you would complain about that. I am not disagreeing with you about putting the video cameras in the cars, but since you are complaining about these departments spending money for improvement for the SWAT teams then you would surely complain about them spending money for the video cameras.
By courtesy (43), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 5:51 PM
1 member liked this comment
Police need to ‘intensively’ train for dangerous events that, god willing, will never happen. They don’t need to train as often for the run of the mill DWI, alarm call or public urination arrest. Don’t think that local PD commanders haven’t researched whether the use of outside resources is a viable option; the fact is that it isn’t. They would never be able to get to the east end in time to stop the carnage. Multi-jurisdictional combination of training and resources is the safest (and most tax ...more
By taxraven (26), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 6:56 PM
And, I have no problem with police aggressively ferreting out and arresting intoxicated/impaired drivers.
Even if they stop vehicles solely for the purpose of determining their sobriety I support them 110%. If you or a loved one were directly affected by the senseless tragedies caused by intoxicated drivers you would not hide behind the constitution as justification.
By taxraven (26), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 7:05 PM
taxraven- you are absolutly correct. I cannot agree with you any more. Very well said! You certainly hit the nail on the head there and I commend your comments. I think it is the best option for the local police departments to train and combine with eachother. This is very good because each agency will get used to operating with eachother and know what to expect form eachother. This will help the teams operate on the same levels and help get jobs done quicker.

In regards to your other comment, ...more
By courtesy (43), Southampton on Mar 7, 10 11:15 PM
to courtesy & taxraven:

No one should be permitted to drive drunk. Drunk drivers' behavior gives the cops probable cause to arrest them and compel them to pass sobriety tests. That's just as it should be. My contention is that STPD cops fish drivers from traffic on the basis of perceptions that have nothing to do with manifest symptoms of drunkenness but, rather, on criteria that are based on age, race, and proximity to nightclubs.

This misbehavior can be solved, as I said, ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 8, 10 4:14 AM
2 members liked this comment
Highhatsize, again I would like to commend you on your logical and constitutional positioning regarding your brilliant postings on this page. You are clear and concise while the other views are distorted probably because of the constant barrage of cop and law shows on TV. Phobic intoxication and catastrophising; are words I would use to describe the other posters here. For they are the lost ones. They are probably very young people with very little life experience and will tend to depend on government ...more
By Johnny Nova (83), Northampton on Mar 11, 10 12:05 PM
to Johnny Nova:


To Others:

See! Not everybody hates me.
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 12, 10 7:35 PM
This all brings back a bizzare memory. It was 2 AM New Years days outside a local bar deep inside one of the incorporated villages. One of SH's finest was watching patrons leave while sitting in his/her patrol car. I know this PO is friendly with the bartender, too. I read in the SH press the next week this person had won the contests for most DWI arrests for the year. How bizzare.

(This was a long, long time ago.)
By RemembertheDucks (54), Eastport on Mar 12, 10 9:14 PM
Interesting observation Mr. Nova. Maybe the young people, with no life experiences, who run our local emergency services, will defer all their operations to your and Hat Size’s considerable expertise. On the other hand, maybe we will continue to anonymously post our opinions and observations and they will do what they are paid to do….what do you think?
By K Aventi (33), Southampton on Mar 12, 10 11:06 AM
The training these officers, and paramedics recieve is not solely applicable in a SWAT situation.

The methods they learn, and knowledge they acquire can be applied elesewhere, as well.

You have the right to privacy, as long as your "freedom", does not impinge on the equal freedom of anyone else.

How's that for a broad statement?
By Mr. Z (11847), North Sea on Mar 12, 10 1:15 PM
to AlwaysLocal:

Cops RESPOND to criminal activity. They are under no obligation to protect any individual from harm nor does one have a right to expect them to. This is established law. Were it otherwise, if your home is invaded and you are beaten and robbed, you could sue the police department for damages for failure to perform its duties.

Of course a police presence deters crime, but aside from that, its principle function is to stop crimes in progress and to investigate crimes, ...more
By highhatsize (4217), East Quogue on Mar 12, 10 6:36 PM